Explore all Vedantu courses by class or target exam, starting at ₹1350
Long Term Courses
Full Year Courses Starting @ just Rs 9000
One-to-one LIVE classes
Learn one-to-one with a teacher for a personalised experience
Courses for Kids
Find courses by class
Starting @ ₹1,350
Find courses by target
Starting @ ₹1,350
Free study material
Get class-wise, author-wise, & board-wise free study material for exam preparation
Online Tuition
Get class-wise, subject-wise, & location-wise online tuition for exam preparation

CBSE Class 10 Maths Formulas and Important Equations

Last updated date: 26th Jun 2024
Total views: 690.6k
Views today: 18.90k

CBSE Class 10 Maths Formulas and Important Equations

Maths is an important and basic subject for the school students and most of the students also consider it as a tough subject as well because of its practical nature. This is a subject that includes a lot of formulas that are used for problem-solving and that too requires a lot of practice to become a master in Maths concepts and their formulas. Think of a question related to the area or volume of any object. You can not find out its answers unless you are aware of these formulas. Thus, it becomes very important to learn and revise these formulas regularly if we even talk about basic Maths for Class 10.

Vedantu knows that it is an important task but also very time-consuming. Thus, we have brought the Class 10 Maths formula PDF of each chapter to ease the preparation of the students which will help them to practice more and score better. Students can find NCERT Solution for each Chapter of Class 10 Maths on Vedantu. Vedantu provides the formulae for Class 10 Maths according to the updated syllabus, latest for the present academic year. You can also Download NCERT Solutions Class 10 Science and to help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Popular Vedantu Learning Centres Near You
Mithanpura, Muzaffarpur
location-imgVedantu Learning Centre, 2nd Floor, Ugra Tara Complex, Club Rd, opposite Grand Mall, Mahammadpur Kazi, Mithanpura, Muzaffarpur, Bihar 842002
Visit Centre
Anna Nagar, Chennai
location-imgVedantu Learning Centre, Plot No. Y - 217, Plot No 4617, 2nd Ave, Y Block, Anna Nagar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600040
Visit Centre
Velachery, Chennai
location-imgVedantu Learning Centre, 3rd Floor, ASV Crown Plaza, No.391, Velachery - Tambaram Main Rd, Velachery, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600042
Visit Centre
Tambaram, Chennai
location-imgShree Gugans School CBSE, 54/5, School road, Selaiyur, Tambaram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600073
Visit Centre
Avadi, Chennai
location-imgVedantu Learning Centre, Ayyappa Enterprises - No: 308 / A CTH Road Avadi, Chennai - 600054
Visit Centre
Deeksha Vidyanagar, Bangalore
location-imgSri Venkateshwara Pre-University College, NH 7, Vidyanagar, Bengaluru International Airport Road, Bengaluru, Karnataka 562157
Visit Centre
View More
Competitive Exams after 12th Science

CBSE Class 10 Math Related Study Material

Math Important Formulas and Equations of Class 10

Linear Equations Formulas Class 10

One Variable

ax+b=0, a≠0

Two variable

ax+by+c = 0, a≠0, b≠0 

Three Variable

ax+by+cz+d=0, a≠0, b≠0, c≠0


Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables Formula Class 10




$a_1, b_1, c_1, a_2, b_2,$ and $c_2$ are all real numbers and

$a_{12} + b_{12} \neq 0$ and $a_{22} + b_{22} \neq 0$

Additionally, it's worth noting that we can represent linear equations in two variables graphically.

Quadratic Equations Formula Class 10

Standard Form of Quadratic Equation

ax2+ bx + c = 0, a≠0 

Quadratic Formula

-b ± √D⁄2a  or -b ± b2 − 4ac⁄2a  


D = b2 − 4ac

Sum of Roots


Product of Roots


Algebraic Formulas Class 10

$(a+b)^2=a^2+b^2+2 a b \\ (a-b)^2=a^2+b^2-2 a b \\ (a+b)(a-b)=a^2-b^2 \\ (x+a)(x+b)=x^2+(a+b) x+a b \\ (x+a)(x-b)=x^2+(a-b) x-a b \\ (x-a)(x+b)=x^2+(b-a) x-a b \\ (x-a)(x-b)=x^2-(a+b) x+a b \\ (a+b)^3=a^3+b^3+3 a b(a+b) \\ (a-b)^3=a^3-b^3-3 a b(a-b) \\ (x+y+z)^2=x^2+y^2+z^2+2 x y+2 y z+2 x z \\ (x+y-z)^2=x^2+y^2+z^2+2 x y-2 y z-2 x z \\ (x-y+z)^2=x^2+y^2+z^2-2 x y-2 y z+2 x z \\ (x-y-z)^2=x^2+y^2+z^2-2 x y+2 y z-2 x z \\ x^3+y^3+z^3-3 x y z=(x+y+z)\left(x^2+y^2+z^2-x y-y z-x z\right) \\ x^2+y^2=1 / 2\left[(x+y)^2+(x-y)^2\right] \\ (x+a)(x+b)(x+c)=x^3+(a+b+c) x^2+(a b+b c+c a) x+a b c \\ x^3+y^3=(x+y)\left(x^2-x y+y^2\right) \\ x^3-y^3=(x-y)\left(x^2+x y+y^2\right) \\ x^2+y^2+z^2-x y-y z-z x=1 / 2\left[(x-y)^2+(y-z)^2+(z-x)^2\right]$

Basic Formulas for Powers of Class 10

$p^m \times p^n = p^{m+n}\\ \dfrac{p^m}{p^n} = p^{m-n}\\ (p^m)^n = p^{mn}\\ p^{-m} = \dfrac{1}{p^m}\\ p^1 = p\\ P^0 = 1$

Arithmetic Progression Formula Class 10

If you have a sequence of numbers like a, a+d, a+2d, a+3d, and so on, where 'a' is the first number and 'd' is the common difference between each consecutive pair of numbers, you can represent it as an Arithmetic Progression (AP). The formula for finding the nth term of this arithmetic progression is given as follows:

nth term for arithmetic progression

a + (n-1) d

Sum of the first n terms 

$S_n = \dfrac{n}{2}[2a+(n−1)d]$

Trigonometry Formula Class 10

In 10th class trigonometry formulas focus on three main functions: Sine, Cosine, and Tangent, which apply to right-angled triangles. These functions are useful for calculating angles and sides in such triangles. Additionally, we can derive formulas for secant, cosecant, and cotangent using the sine, cosine, and tangent formulas.

Consider a right-angled triangle ABC, where angle θ is at point B.

1. $\sin \theta = \dfrac{\text{Side opposite to angle}}{\text{Hypotenuse}} = \dfrac{\text { Perpendicular }}{\text { Hypotenuse }} = P/H$

2. $\cos \theta = \dfrac{\text { Adjacent side to angle } \theta}{\text { Hypotenuse }} = \dfrac{\text { Base }}{\text { Hypotenuse }} = B/H$

3. $\tan \theta = \dfrac{\text {Side opposite to angle }\theta}{\text {Adjacent side to angle }\theta} = P/B$

4. $\sec \theta = \dfrac{1}{\cos \theta}$

5. $\cot \theta = \dfrac{1}{\tan \theta}$

6. $\text{cosec} \theta = \dfrac{1}{\sin \theta}$

7. $\tan \theta = \dfrac{{Sin} \theta}{{Cos} \theta}$

Trigonometry Table










































Other Trigonometric formulas:

  • sin(90° – θ) = cos θ

  • cos(90° – θ) = sin θ

  • tan(90° – θ) = cot θ

  • cot(90° – θ) = tan θ

  • sec(90° – θ) = cosecθ

  • cosec(90° – θ) = secθ

  • sin2θ + cos2 θ = 1

  • sec2 θ = 1 + tan2θ for 0° ≤ θ < 90°

  • Cosec2 θ = 1 + cot2 θ for 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90°

Circles Formula Class 10

  • Circumference = 2 π r

  • Area = π r2

  • Area of the sector of angle θ = (θ/360) × π r2

  • Length of an arc of a sector of angle θ = (θ/360) × 2 π r

Surface Area and Volumes Formulas Class 10

Diameter of sphere


Total surface area of cuboid.

2 (l×b + b×h + l×h)

Volume of Cuboid.

l × b × h

Perimeter of cuboid

4(l + b +h)

Length of the longest diagonal of a cuboid

√(l2 + b2 + h2)

Surface area of sphere.

4 π r2

Volume of Sphere.

4/3 π r3

Curved surface area of Cylinder.


Area of two circular bases.


Total surface area of Cylinder.

Circumference of Cylinder + Curved surface area of Cylinder = 2 πrh + 2 πr2

Volume of Cylinder.

πr2 h

Slant height of cone.

l = √(r2 + h2)

Curved surface area of cone.


Total surface area of cone

πr (l + r)

Volume of cone.

⅓ π r2 h

When it comes to cubes, all the sides are the same length, and we call that length 'a'. Now, if you want to find the surface area or volume of a cube, you just need to use 'a' for all the sides. Easy, right? No need to repeat the same lengths for length, breadth, and height in that case. Keep it simple!

Statistics Class 10 Formulas

The statistics Class 10 Formulas focuses on figuring out the mean, median, and mode of grouped data.

1. Mean: In this, the grouped data can be found by 3 methods

  1. Direct Method: $\bar{x}=\frac{\sum_{i=1}^n f_i x_i}{\sum_{i=1}^n f_i}$

  2. Assumed mean method: $\bar{x}=a+\frac{\sum_{i=1}^n f_i d_i}{\sum_{i=1}^n f_i}$

  3. Step deviation method: $\bar{x}=a+\frac{\sum_{i=1}^n f_i u_i}{\sum_{i=1}^n f_i} \times h$

2. Mode: $\text { Mode }=l+\dfrac{f_1-f_0}{2 f_1-f_0-f_2} \times h$

3. Median: $\text { Median }=l+\dfrac{\frac{n}{2}-cf}{f} \times h$

Section Formula Class 10

\[x = \frac{{x_1 \cdot m + x_2 \cdot n}}{{m + n}}\]

\[y = \frac{{y_1 \cdot m + y_2 \cdot n}}{{m + n}}\]

Here, $(x_1, y_1)$ and $(x_2, y_2)$ are the coordinates of the endpoints of the line segment.

m and n are the ratios in which the line segment is divided.

Keep in mind, the sum of m and n should be equal to 1. Section Formula Class 10 helps find the coordinates of a point P that divides a line segment AB in the given ratio m:n.

Formula for Class 10 Mathematics

Consolidation of CBSE Class 10 Maths formulas is not an easy task for the students but also very essential. It is necessary for Class 10 board exams and Math is one of the compulsory subjects in Class 10 which can help the students to get good percentages. This exam is of 100 marks and covers all the basic topics of Mathematics and we at Vedantu have covered all class ten math formula NCERT PDF for your preparation. This exam gives students 3 hours of duration to attempt and you will only be able to attempt the entire paper if you are aware of the concepts and their formulas because this is a time-consuming paper because of its problem solving and calculative nature. So you need to master these 10th Class Mathematics formulas for which you can use PDFs created by Vedantu.

Why Should You go for all Formulas of Math Class 10 NCERT PDF?

Formulas are the basic requirement for a subject like Mathematics, and concise notes of class tenth math formula will be beneficial for the students in many ways such as:

  • Class 10 Math formulas PDF will help the students to cover important formulas of all the chapters easily.

  • Students can get all the formulas of each chapter in one place which they can download with the internet.

  • These formulae notes are prepared by the Math experts according to the latest syllabus of the CBSE and as per the demand of each chapter. 

  • The experts have included all the necessary formulas in the CBSE 10th class  Math formulas list pdf so that students can revise all the important things in one place before any test or exam.

  • We know that it takes a lot of time to prepare precise notes of any topic or subject and it also should be made in a way that becomes easy to revise at the end and which are inclusive of everything necessary. Vedantu solved this problem for the students by providing 10th Class Mathematics Formulas PDF of each chapter.

  • Students can use these 10th Class Maths formulas list and align them along with their preparation and start solving problems according to them.

  • Chapters like Trigonometry and surface area volume have a lot of formulas without which problems can not be solved. Thus, these PDFs will help you to cover important class ten math formulas.

Chapters Covered in the PDF

CBSE Class 10 Maths formula PDF covers all the chapters of Class 10 CBSE individually and you can download formulas PDF of each chapter individually on the Vedantu platform. The chapters it covers include real numbers, polynomial equations, and quadratic equations pair of linear equations in two variables, arithmetic progressions, triangles, coordinate geometry, Introduction to trigonometry, applications of trigonometry, circles, surface area and volume, statistics, probability. All NCERT Class 10 Maths formula PDF download of these chapters are linked here and you can search them separately as well and then can download the PDFs and start your preparation.

Tips for Preparating Class 10 Maths formula

Here are some general tips for preparing 10th class Mathematics formulas:

  • Firstly, make sure you have a strong understanding of the fundamental concepts before diving into formulas. Knowing the basics will help you apply the formulas correctly.

  • Compile a formula sheet that includes all the essential formulas in one place. This will make it easier for you to revise and refer to them whenever needed.

  • Practice is key in mastering mathematical formulas. Work on a variety of problems that involve different formulas to reinforce your understanding and application skills.

  • Create flashcards with the formula on one side and its application or significance on the other. This will help you memorize and understand the context in which each formula is used.

  • Solve sample papers and previous years' question papers to get a sense of the types of questions that may appear in exams. This will also improve your time management skills.

  • Mathematics is not just about memorizing formulas; it's about problem-solving. Practice solving problems using the formulas to enhance your problem-solving skills.

  • Teaching someone else is an effective way to reinforce your own understanding. Explain the formulas and concepts to a friend or family member to ensure you truly grasp them.

  • If you encounter difficulties or have doubts about any formula, don't hesitate to ask your teacher or peers for clarification. Understanding the formulas thoroughly is crucial.

  • Join or create study groups where you can discuss and solve mathematical problems together. Explaining concepts to peers can deepen your understanding and help you learn from others.

  • Consistency is key in mathematics. Set aside regular study time for math and stick to it. Consistent practice will improve your confidence and proficiency with the formulas.

General Tips for Class 10 Math Preparation

  • Prepare all the concepts of each chapter properly at the starting of the syllabus and then try to focus on key areas with maximum weightage and key areas where you are lacking.

  • Do prepare and revise class ten math formula, again and again, to remember them for the exam.

  • Do integrate mocks tests, revision notes, sample papers, and previous year papers along with class tenth Math formulas for board exams.

  • Do remember practice makes you perfect in Math problem solving and calculation as well.

  • Do practice questions of linear equations on graphs for proper representation of the required details and practice statistics & surface area volume a lot to learn these concepts properly.


CBSE Class 10 Maths Formulas play a pivotal role in understanding and solving mathematical problems. Mastering these formulas, including those for trigonometry, surface area and volume, section formula, and statistics, is crucial for success in the 10th-grade mathematics curriculum. Vedantu provides a valuable resource for students, offering a comprehensive 10th Class maths formulas list. These formulas serve as the foundation for tackling various mathematical concepts, fostering a deeper understanding of the subject. Regular practice and application of these formulas not only enhance problem-solving skills but also empower students to approach mathematical challenges with confidence and proficiency.

FAQs on CBSE Class 10 Maths Formulas and Important Equations

1. How can I Score Good Marks in Class 10 Maths?

Maths is an important scoring subject in Class 10 and scoring good marks is what everyone wants in board exams but what you do differently than others matters. For good marks on the Class 10 board, you can start your preparation by going through the syllabus, covering NCERTs in the beginning, and then using some standard books like RD Sharma or RS Aggarwal to master your concepts, solving mocks tests, latest sample & previous year papers, use of revision and formulas notes, etc. will help you to make a difference in your preparation strategy and will help you score better than others.

2. Are NCERTs Enough for Class 10 Maths?

Well, CBSE gives choice to the students in Class 10 to opt for basic Maths or Standard Maths for the Board exams. For basic Maths, NCERTs books are enough and are a great source to cover the syllabus but for standard Maths, you have to cover NCERTs along with some standard books such as RD Sharma and RS Aggarwal.  Cover the entire syllabus with the help of the required books and so include CBSE Class 10 Maths Formulas Pdf and practice again and again to master the problems of the chapters of these books.

3. Should I Need to Solve the Previous Year's Paper or Sample Papers for Class 10 Maths?

Solving previous year papers or latest sample papers help a lot in your preparation journey of any subject and if you include these things in your practice you will yield a lot of benefits in the end. These papers help you to practice the problems of Maths and to learn and revise the formulas or topics as well. These papers will guide you on where you are going well and where you need to improve. Thus, it is advisable to include these papers in your preparation.

4. What are the important class ten math formulas?

There are many important 10th class mathematics formulas in various branches of math. Here's aare some key 10th class maths formulas list:

10th class Algebra formulas:

  • Quadratic Equation: ax^2 + bx + c = 0 ; Roots: x = (-b ± √(b^2-4ac)) / 2a

  • Factorization: (a + b)(a - b) = a^2 - b^2, (x + a)(x + b) = x^2 + (a + b)x + ab, etc.

  • Powers and Roots: (a^m)^n = a^(mn), ³√a = a^(1/3), etc.

10th class Trigonometry formulas:

  • Ratios in Right-Angled Triangles: sin θ = opposite/hypotenuse, cos θ = adjacent/hypotenuse, tan θ = opposite/adjacent

  • Pythagorean Theorem: a^2 + b^2 = c^2 (where c is the hypotenuse)

  • Identities: sin^2 θ + cos^2 θ = 1, tan θ = sin θ / cos θ, etc.

Geometry class 10 formulas:

  • Area of Circle: πr^2

  • Circumference of Circle: 2πr

  • Volume of Sphere: (4/3)πr^3

  • Surface Area of Sphere: 4πr^2

  • Similar Figures: Ratios of corresponding sides and areas are equal

Statistics class 10 formulas:

  • Mean: Sum of observations / Number of observations

  • Median: Middle value when data is arranged in ascending/descending order

  • Mode: Most frequent value

Probability class 10 formulas :

Probability of an event: Number of favorable outcomes / Total number of outcomes

5. What is an equation in 10th class mathematics formula?

An equation in math class 10 is a statement expressing the equality of two mathematical expressions. It usually contains variables that you need to solve for. For example, 2x + 5 = 11 is an equation where you need to find the value of x that makes both sides equal.

6. What is basic maths in class 10 maths formula?

"Basic math" in class 10 can vary depending on the curriculum and individual needs. However, it generally covers topics like:

  • Arithmetic operations: Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, percentage, etc.

  • Algebraic expressions and equations: Simplifying expressions, solving linear equations, etc.

  • Geometry: Basic shapes, their properties, area, and volume calculations.

  • Trigonometry: Understanding basic trigonometric ratios and their applications.

  • Statistics and Probability: Representing and analyzing data, calculating basic probability.

7. What are the formulas for 10th algebra?

There are many important formulas in 10th grade algebra, but here are some of the most common ones:

Basic Operations:

  • Order of Operations (PEMDAS/BODMAS): Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication/Division (left to right), Addition/Subtraction (left to right)

  • Simplifying expressions: Combine like terms, use distributive property, etc.


  • Perfect squares: $(a + b)^2 = a^2 + 2ab + b^2, (a - b)^2 = a^2 - 2ab + b^2$

  • Difference of squares: $a^2 - b^2 = (a + b)(a - b)$

  • Sum-product pattern: $a^2 + 2ab + b^2 = (a + b)^2$

  • General factoring: Use various techniques like grouping, trial and error, etc.

Quadratic Equations:

  • Standard form: $ax^2 + bx + c = 0$

  • Roots: x = (-b ± √(b^2 - 4ac)) / 2a

  • Discriminant (Δ): $b^2 - 4ac$

  • Δ > 0: Two distinct real roots

  • Δ = 0: One repeated real root

  • Δ < 0: Two complex roots

8. What are some 3 math important formulas?

It's difficult to choose just 3 class tenth math formula formulas as important depends on the context. However, here are 3 widely applicable formulas:

  • Distance formula: useful in geometry and various other applications.

  • Pythagorean theorem: fundamental in geometry and trigonometry.

  • Area of a rectangle: Area = length x width - basic formula with many applications.

9. What are the 6 important class ten math formula?

Picking just 6 formulas is challenging. But here are 6 important class ten math formula that span different areas:

  1. Derivative of the power function

  2. Pythagorean theorem

  3. Area of a rectangle

  4. Slope formula

  5. Quadratic formula

  6. Order of operations (PEMDAS/BODMAS)